Wastewater is water that has been used and must be treated before it is released into another body of water, so that it does not cause further pollution of water sources. Wastewater comes from a variety of sources. Everything that you flush down your toilet or rinse down the drain is wastewater. Rainwater and runoff, along with various pollutants, go down street gutters and eventually end up at a wastewater treatment facility. Wastewater can also come from agricultural and industrial sources. Some wastewaters are more difficult to treat than others; for example, industrial wastewater can be difficult to treat, whereas domestic wastewater is relatively easy to treat (though it is increasingly difficult to treat domestic waste, due to increased amounts of pharmaceuticals and personal care products that are found in domestic wastewater.
The primary purpose of the treatment of sewage is to prevent the pollution of the receiving waters. Many techniques have been devised to accomplish this aim for both small and large quantities of sewage.
The treatment of sewage is largely a biochemical operation, where chemical transformations of the sewage are carried out by living microorganisms. Different environments favor the growth of different populations of microorganisms and this in turn affects the efficiency, end products, and completeness of treatment of the sewage. Sewage treatment systems, whether they are standard septic systems or more advanced treatment technologies, attempt to create specific biochemical environments to control the sewage treatment process.
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